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Zoology 

The man's birth (Homo sapiens) as animal species, it marks a landmark in the history of the 
development of the organic life on the earth. Since it arises the man like species able to use 
or to modify their ecological environment, the incorporation of the information faunística 
begins or zoological; initially in the identification form or recognition and its transmission 
to other members of the community. This way, the modification of the natural atmosphere, 
the systematic classification (identification and classification) and ecological (form of life) 
and the transformations imposed by the social and productive use of the animals and plants, 
they are made common in the history of the human development. These facts become 
evident when comparing the information obtained in different indigenous groups that at the 
present time are totally isolated, and that they maintain important information about the 
animals and their life through the oral language; many of them possess zoological 
information that is more exact in certain aspects and it surpasses that obtained through the 
writings or academic descriptions. From the beginning of what we could call the social 
man's emergence, have associated this, somehow, with the animal life and vegetable. It is 
common to find inside the diverse old religious conceptions (polytheisms or monotheisms) 
of the man's origin, evidences of this association. Such animals as bulls, snakes, wolves, 
lambs, etc., they participate in this origin. They don't escape to these conceptions some of 
our Venezuelan indigenous groups as the piaroas and their adoration to the hill Autana 
(Edo. Amazons). This elevation has the form of a trunk of cut tree. Among their beliefs 
they indicate that this the tree of the origin of the life that expanded the life for the whole 
earth when being cut was. The legend of the danta and the manatí of the waraos are another 
autochthonous example. In her, each one of these animals arises of the «migration» toward 
different hábitats on the part of 2 mate waraos: a she/he went toward the water and she/he 
became manatí, and the other one went into in the forest and she/he became danta. This 
way, for millennia the man has been able to organize the information, to classify it and to 
give him an use. The first communities developed this ability and their first zoological 
discriminations would be among those useful animals as food, coat or construction and 
those dangerous ones such as depredadores, competitors and poisonous. On the other hand, 
the combination of biological characters to convert some of them in mythical. The man, 
before the presence of this wild life, is a nomadic species; he moves the same as the 
animals having present the plants that it will use like food. The permanent incorporation of 
information allowed the knowledge of the plants and animals and its later domesticación. 
They arise the names of the plants and animals then (the nomenclature and zoological 
taxonomía), the properties are determined, the means of life and you begins with the 
handling of the resource and the learning. 
Before Columbus (before the XVI century) 
The poblamiento of America on the part of human groups coming from the Asian northeast, 
possibly following migrations of hoofed flocks, she/he has a 70.000 year-old approximate 
age. This man should already meet the hunt and the fishing, the same as the use of the fire 
for the cooking smoky y/o of the foods. These populations took 40.000 years in arriving in 
America of the South. In Venezuela there are concrete archaeological evidences that date of 
13.000 years ago. Mario Sanoja and Iraida Vargas have outlined that Suramérica was 
invaded by 2 human groups: one formed by those that possessed a widespread economy of 
hunt and gathering, and another constituted for «specialized hunters», associated to vestiges 
of fauna pleistocénica. Irving Rouse and José María Cruxent divided the stage prehispanic 
Venezuelan in 4 periods that you/they called: paleoindio, mesoindio, neoindio and the 
indiohispánico, all them intimately associated to the use of the fauna and of the flora like 
food source, coat or protection. 
The period paleoindio (20.000-5.000 to. C.): It has been characterized by residents that 
obtained nutritious resources mainly coming from the hunt and gathering of wild tubers and 
fruits. Their geographical location extended for the current states Bolivar, south of 
Monagas and Anzoátegui, Miranda, Aragua, Falcon and north of Zulia. These human 
groups were contemporary with zoological species nowadays extinct as the mastodon 
(Haplomastodon guyanensis), the megaterio (Ermotherium rusconii), the gliptodonte 
(Gliptodon clavipes) whose remains have been found in association with lithic tips of 
projectile, in the vicinities of the river Cucuruchú (Edo. Falcon). The later appearance of 
the arch and the arrow that it dates in our 9.000 year-old territory to. C., it would have 
facilitated the hunt of birds and mammals. As form of social organization, this system of 
obtaining of resources faunísticos seems to have lasted until the appearance of specialized 
hunters and marine recolectores that invade interior regions and the coastal-marine area of 
Venezuela. 
The period mesoindio (5.000-1.000 years B.C.): It is a stage of social modification. They 
appear, besides those mentioned previously, communities recolectoras of mainly marine 
fauna, like it is evident for the mounds of remains ictioarqueológicos formed by shells 
(botutos), remains of fish (you line), turtles and small rodents; besides built devices with 
stones, shells and bones of marine animals, found in towns of the Antillean islands and of 
Margarita, The Asleep ones and the coast of the states Sucre, Anzoátegui and Falcon. This 
activity introduces a new pattern of subsistence assumed as a parallel development to that 
of the hunters and of the first agricultural communities located the NE of the state Zulia. In 
this period the appearance of certain specialized technology has been detected for the 
fishing like they are the harpoons, nets, arrows and nasas (traps) for the capture of fish. 
The period neoindio (1.000-1.500 years d. C.): It is characterized mainly by the 
sedentaridad of numerous communities in low, plane lands (plains) and fence of the 
occident of the country. These natives went inclined to create certain information on the use 
of the fauna in petroglifos form, drawings in ceramic and animal remains left in primitive 
housings. They began a life of domain of the agriculture, by means of the called system 
«conuco», where the pruning and she/he burns partially of the forest they allowed the use of 
the earth for cultivation. Equally, you begins with the handling and recovery of lands 
inundables by means of the construction of ridges. Both systems were taken advantage of 
for the sows of corn, yucca, potato, etc. Sporadically, they carried out hunt expeditions and 
she/he fishes, of which obtained mammals like chigüires (Hydrochoerus hydrochæris), deer 
(Mazama spp. and Odacoileus spp.), limpets (Agouti paca), báquiros (Dycotyles tajacu) and 
cachicamos (Dasypus spp.); birds like paujíes (Cranx spp.) and mount pavas (Penelope 
spp.); reptiles as the turtles of the Orinoco (Podocnemis expansa), morrocoyes (Geochelone 
spp.), tortoises (Podocnemis vogli) and iguanas (Iguana iguana); fish like bagres bullies 
(Brachyplatystoma spp.), you line (Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum and P. tigrinum), cachamas 
(Colossoma macropomum), morocotos (Piaractus brachypomus), zapoaras 
(Semaprochilodis laticeps) and old (Caquetaia kraussi), among others. Some groups 
isolated in regions to the N of the state Zulia, central plains and perhaps in Amazons, they 
remained practicing the hunt and the fishing like the main activity, using the gathering of 
vegetables as complement of the feeding. Still in the coastal areas and islands she/he stayed 
the activity of gathering of marine shells and the fishing. This hunt and fishing itinerante or 
of subsistence it has been continued in such regions until our days, especially during the 
sacred days. 
In summary, the period before Columbus Venezuelan was characterized by human 
populations dedicated to the use and sustainable use of the fauna resources and 
autochthonous flora to obtain food, dress, decoration and housing. They practiced the hunt 
of subsistence using arches, arrows, harpoons, blowpipes and traps, only charging the 
necessary pieces, which used directly or they preserved by means of a roasted one slow 
(smoky); the gathering frutícola and of tubers of the forest and the appearance of the 
nomadic agricultural system (conucos), it also characterizes the most advanced populations. 
However, it has been evidenced that the ingestion of animal protein for the before 
Columbus natives was quite high, using proteins of vegetable origin as complement. In this 
form, the man acted in harmony with the nature, working like part of her and trying to 
maintain conscious or unconsciously the ecological balance. Forms of similar life persist at 
the present time still in some indigenous communities non transculturadas like the 
yanomamis in the high Orinoco and Siapa. In them they are clearly recognizable states of 
development of the knowledge of the resource fauna in different levels. This way, they are 
identified with own names a great variety of useful animals as much as food, ornament and 
dress; among these they are the dantas (Tapirus terrestris), chigüires (Hydrochoerus 
hydrochæris), monkeys (Fam. Cebidæ), parakeets (Fam. Psitacidæ), fish (Fam. Characidæ 
and Fam. Pimelodidæ), cunaguaros (Leopardus spp.), deer (Mazama spp.), turtles of the 
Orinoco (Podocnemis expansa). The information is simple and she/he doesn't go beyond 
the simple description of its characteristics. The guacamaya (it Plows macao) or the toucan 
(Ramphastos cuvieri), they are identifiable as flying animals that live in trees associated to 
fruits that eat up, or where nidifican and that their plumages serve as decoration. 
The period indohispánico (1500 d. C.): It begins with the arrival from the Europeans to the 
territory of the current Venezuela. They were already numerous indigenous agricultural 
establishments in the central valleys, islands, costs, Walk them, Guayana and Amazons. In 
them a great variety of states of social and cultural development is detected. Possibly, the 
residents of the occident of the country are the most advanced, but in none there is evidence 
of the domesticación of animals, like it could have happened in other areas of Center and 
South America with the Mayan, Inca and Aztec. Initially the introduction of vegetable 
elements and animals brought by the Spaniards takes place, which displace the aboriginal 
activity in their great majority. We have this way that the plane areas are mainly dedicated 
to the bovine cattle raising, displacing or eliminating the wild fauna by means of the 
economic or sport hunt and the elimination or modification of the hábitat for desforestación 
and she/he burns of gallery forests. These actions restrict the areas of activity of hunt of our 
autochthonous communities vastly, which are reduced to a minimum. 
XV-XVII centuries 
At the beginning of the period indohispánico in Venezuela, the documents taken place by 
the columnists appears. Through these narrations you can evidence the importance of the 
use of the fauna for the autochthonous residents. Undoubtedly, that was completely 
unknown for the settlers. However, what more impact took place was the great opposing 
animal diversity and especially, the aquatic fauna that was used conscious or unconsciously 
in spectacular narrations with the intention of to impress to the Spanish Crown and to 
obtain more money for «to investigate» on these monsters found in the India. The first 
descriptions of our fauna go back to the chronic calls of India. These had among their main 
objectives, the delivery of information to the royalty or diverse financial entities of the first 
trips and consolidation of towns in the tropical America in general and in Venezuela in 
particular. The chronicles picked up the impression caused by the contact with new cultures 
and in this case to the use given by the natives to the fauna. They were influenced by an in 
agreement perspective with the formation cultural European-Westerner of the time. Among 
the columnists they are Pedro Mártir of Anglería, brother Pedro of Watery, brother 
Hyacinth of Carvajal, brother Antonio Caulín, Gonzalo Fernández of Oviedo and Valdés, 
José Gumilla, Francisco López of Gómara, José of Oviedo and Bathrooms and many 
others. 
Pedro Mártir of Anglería consigns in his Decades of the New World the first registrations 
or zoological references on the part of those «conquerors» European, in those that are 
narrated and they identify those mainly «flying fish» (Dactylopterus volitans) and those 
«sirens» or «manatíes» (Trichechus manatus) when entering to the sea of the Sargassos and 
islands of the Caribbean. In the first Decade it includes information about a great number of 
species, among them the rabipelados (Didelphis marsupialis), armadillos (Dasypus 
novencinctus), I dare anthill (Tamandua tetradactyla), mapurite (Conepatus chinga), deer 
(Odocoileus sp. and Mazama sp.), rabbits (Silviagus floridianus), dantas (Tapirus 
terrestris), manatíes (Trichechus manatus), jaguar (Panthera onca), cunaguaros (Leopardus 
pardalis), araguatos (Alouatta seniculus), monkey capuchino (Cebus apella), hoggish 
porcupine (Coendu prehensilis) and many others had as «vampires», «bats», «insects» and 
«monkeys» that has not been possible to identify fully for their generality. 
Brother Pedro of Thin describes in his work Summary record of Santa Marta and of the 
New Kingdom of Granada, mainly the fauna associated to certain indigenous habits. 
Among the animals that more she/he got him the attention the guacamayas or parrots are (it 
Plows spp.) and the manatí. Also, it is of the impression that you/they caused him those 
highlighting «caribes» or «pirañas» (goods Pygocentrus and Serrasalmus) and the use of 
nets to fish. Its biggest contribution to the zoological knowledge the description that makes 
of those was possibly «paujíes» likening them with the «capon» European with the 
difference of the «stone» in the head of the males and its reference to defined harmful 
animals as «insects hematófagos» such as those «fleas», «lice» and «niguas» (Sarcopsylla 
penetrans) those which, according to him, they attacked the barefoot boys mainly. 
Hyacinth of Carvajal, is one of the columnists that paid more attention to the use of the 
fauna for the natives. In their book Relationship of the discovery of the river it Hurries until 
their entrance in the Orinoco, she/he refers to the ingesta of «fish», «caymen», «manatíes» 
and «snakes», writing down some aspects on the biology of these animals, especially the 
voracity of those «caribes» and the use that the Indians made of their teeth like tools and 
knives, even to cut the ropes with which were tied by the Spanish soldiers. 
Juan of Pimentel, governor of the county of Caracas (1576-1583), it ordered to compile 
some geographical relationships in those that figure observations about the species of the 
South American fauna, which is compared with the European. There news are consigned it 
has more than enough goods and existent species in The Tocuyo, Caracas, Maracaibo and 
Trujillo. They highlight the red deer in Caracas (American Mazama) and the deer of the 
plains (Odocoileus virginianus), of which take out some «stones of the crop» that serve 
against the poison of stings of vipers. 
Gonzalo Fernández of Oviedo and Valdés, in their general and natural History of the India 
and mainland of the Mar Océano, impress with the description that makes of some groups 
of «ants», indicating among other things that exist «harmful ants» such as the «comején». 
Equally it describes to those «iguanas» as snakes or dragons. Also, it impresses for their 
notes about those «bats» treaties as flying mammals of brave appearance and strange 
behavior which caused numerous deaths among those «Christian». For the first time, it is 
indicated textually that the remedy against the bite of these animals was given by the 
natives, which cauterized the wounds with embers and they took abundant hot water. 
Francisco López of Gómara is another columnist that was interested in the insects. In their 
work general History of the India it describes to those «cocuyos» (Pyrophorus noctilucus) 
and it indicates that they are some useful animals because their illumination could be used 
to read, to embroider and to hunt. It indicates that these animals are some scarabs with 
wings and a little smaller than the bats. In spite of these exaggerations, this author is 
possibly the first one in indicating the use of an animal as biological control, pointing out 
that the cocuyos was brought to the houses to eliminate the mosquitos. 
Brother Antonio Caulín is possibly one of the best columnists that were in Venezuelan 
territory. In their History of the New Andalusia it gives biological observations and 
morfológicas about the manatí (Trichechus manatus) which calls commonly «calf» or «it 
vacates marine». Equally she/he makes it with the «chigüire» or «capigua» (Hydrochoerus 
hydrochæris) indicating some ecological, reproductive aspects, of behavior and use of their 
meat and skin. 
José of Oviedo and Bathrooms are one of the few authors that in their work titled History of 
the conquest and population of the county of Venezuela mentions to those «bell snakes» 
(Crotalus sp.), pointing out that you/he/she is extremely poisonous and that those bitten 
only last 3 days before expiring. Equally she/he makes a description of the animal, their 
size, color and it forms of the line with their horny escudetes. 
José Gumilla in The cultured and protected Orinoco presents numerous descriptions of 
animals of biomedical importance as those «gnats» (Fam. Simulidæ), «mosquitos» and 
«wading» (Fam. Culicidæ) and other «green» that they leave a worm in the skin and they 
form a tumor. This author equally describes to the wading one as an animal of long and 
colored paws of white (Aedes ægipty), the mosquito transmitter of the «fastidiousness» and 
the «yellow fever». On the other hand, in spite of their imprecisiones, it is important the 
mentions that she/he makes of the to highlight «cayman of the Orinoco» (Crocodylus 
intermedius), those «iguanas» (Iguana iguana), the «I dare anthill» (Tamandua 
tetradactyla), those «caribes» or «guacaritos» (Pygocentrus cariba), fish these last of which 
each columnist made narrations and spectacular descriptions. Although these descriptions 
and interpretations of the nature are not adjusted to a scientific vision of the same one, due 
to the time and to the formation of the columnists, these testimonies served as base and 
attraction so that naturalistic notables incorporated to organized expeditions at the end of 
the XVIII century or during the XIX century. It is as well as scientific of Peter Loefling's 
quality, Alejandro of Humboldt, Aimé Bonpland, Robert Schomburgk and others came to 
America. 
The first naturalists (XVIII-XIX centuries) 
Peter Loefling is one of the less well-known naturalists in our country, possibly because to 
the 2 years of his arrival to Venezuela, he died from malaria beside the river Caroní. 
Loefling arrived to the Venezuelan costs with the title of botanical of the King and like part 
of the Expedition of Limits to the Orinoco, but the commended special matter was the 
improvement and exploitation of the cinnamon. She/he also carried out illustrations of 
numerous species of marine fish and of such sweet water as the «carite» (Scomberomorus 
spp.), the «chapín» or «bull» (Rhinesomus spp.), the «mojarra» (Eugerres spp.), the «it 
lines of river» (Potamotrygon sp.). However, their great work Ychtiologia Orinocensis sive 
catalogus piscium sui in hoc fluvio piscantur, unpublished and deposited in the Real 
Botanical Garden of Madrid, it could be considered as the first treaty of fish in Venezuela. 
This naturalist also carried out numerous illustrations of such birds as the «pretty» (Upispa 
sp.), the «carrao» (Aramus scolopaleus) and mammals like the «rabipelado» (Didelphis 
marsupialis). 
Alejandro of Humboldt and Aimé Bonpland, they contributed to enrich the scientific 
knowledge of the flora and Venezuelan fauna. The works of Humboldt include information 
on botany, zoology, anthropology, ecology, geology, cartography, biogeografía, physics, 
chemistry, astronomy, etc. is to say that it was him who related the geography with the 
natural sciences and to the one who the first climatology knowledge are owed. Their works 
influenced vastly and they inspired many European investigators including to you Talk 
Darwin. Bonpland accompanied him and it participated together with him in the study of 
the flora of Venezuela and other regions of America. Both arrived June 5 from 1799 to 
Cumaná, capital of the county of New Andalusia and during one year they explored the 
coastal regions. However, the biggest interest was centered in the exploration of the basin 
of the river Orinoco until demonstrating its connection with the river Amazons. The voyage 
allowed the knowledge of the rivers Orinoco, Casiquiare, Black, Atabapo, Pimichín and I 
Feared. The accumulation of observations allowed to Humboldt individually or together 
with other investigators, I eat for example, the French ictiólogo Aquiles Valenciennes, the 
description of numerous species of fish; among them they highlight the «pavón of the river 
Feared» (Cichla temensis), the «pavón of the Orinoco» (Cichla orinocensis), the «caribe of 
the Orinoco» (Pygocentrus cariba). It describes 12 monkeys equally, among them they 
highlight the «monkey capuchino» (Chiropotes satanas chiropotes) and the «night monkey» 
(Aotus trivirgatus), besides birds like the «guácharo» (Steatornis caripensis). It reported 
more than 40 «monkeys» for the New World. In their Trip to the regions equinocciales of 
the New Continent figure countless observations on the biology of many species, among 
them fish like the «shaker» (Electrophorus electricus), which gave to know to the 
international scientific community. Their observations morfológicas, biological and 
ecological on the manatí, toninas (Sotalia sp.), jaguar (Felis onca), deer (Mazama spp. and 
Odocoileus spp.), chigüire (Hydrochoerus hydrochæris), mount pig or báquiro (Tagassu 
pecari and Dicotyles tajacu), turtle of the Orinoco (Podocnemis expansa), you dribble 
(Cayman sclerops), blue (Ardeidæ), guácharo (Steatornis caripensis) and bats hematófagos 
(Desmodus sp.), they are extraordinary. It also includes information about the domestic and 
commercial use of numerous species, indicating inclusive, the danger of the 
sobreexplotación and possible elimination of species. Their work Recueil d'observations of 
zoologie et d'anatomie comparée, is a treaty of anatomical, biological aspects and 
morfológicos of numerous species of spineless and vertebrates. Great part of the work was 
dedicated to different species of «monkeys», among them the «araguato» (Alouatta 
seniculus seniculus), the «tamarin» (Saguinus oedipus oedipus), the «squirrel» (Sciurus 
granatensis), birds, crocodiles (Crocodylus intermedius and Cayman crocodylus) and dogs 
of water (Pteronura brasiliensis and Lutra longicaudis). Finally, the scientific formation and 
intellectual of Humboldt and Bonpland allowed them to reject the general idea of the 
existence of the call «hairy man of the forest» that was said she/he lived in San Carlos' city 
in the plains of Cojedes. Due to that, both were white of complaints and resentment on the 
part of the high European and Creole society, when not believing in the existence of the 
great one «monkey antropomórfico of America». 
Robert and Richard Schomburgk were 2 naturalists of German origin that lived in United 
States and England. The first one was designated coordinator from an expedition to the 
British Guayana (1835). During their expedition it visited border areas with Venezuela and 
Brazil, obtaining numerous copies that were studied in the British Museum, being the 
results published by the Royal Geographical Society (1836-1840). The second expedition 
to the Guayanas had its brother's participation Richard. The samples went correspondents to 
the Museum of Berlin, where they were studied by this last one, being given to know the 
results between 1847 and 1848. For these expeditions the British Guayana passed of being 
a practically unexplored region to a very well-known area as for its geography, botany and 
ethnology. In their publications numerous mammals are reported: order Marsupialia: 
«rabipelado» (Didelphis marsupialis), Caluromys philander, «marmosa» (Marmosa murina 
murina), Luterolina crassicaudata and Chironectes minimus. Order Chiróptera: «bat» 
(Molossus molossus). Order Edentata: «bears anthills» (Myrmecophaga tridactyla, 
Tamandua tetradactyla), Cyclopes didactylus didactylus, «cachicamo» (Dasypus 
novencinctus and Cabassous unicinctus). Order Primates: «araguato» (Alouatta seniculus), 
«monkeys» (Ties them paniscus, Cebus apella, Cebus nigrivittatus, Saimiri sciureus, 
Chiropotes satanas, Pithecia pithecia, Aotus sp. and Saguinus measures). Carnivorous 
order: Nasua nasua, «fox crab seller» (Proscion cancrivorus), Potos flavus, Eira barbarian, 
Galictis vittata, «dog of water» (Ptronura brasiliensis), «cunaguaros» and «tigers» (Felis 
concolor, Felis Onca, Felis pardalis, Felis tigrina). Order Perissodactyla: «danta» (Tapirus 
terrestris). Order Rodentia: «squirrel» (Sciurus æstuans), Echynomys hispidus, «hoggish 
porcupine» (Coendu prehensilis), «limpet» (Agouti paca), «chigüire» or «capibara» 
(Hydrochærus hydrochæris). Order Artiodactyla: «báquiro» (Tayassu tajacu), «deer» 
(American Mazama, Mazama gouazoubira and Odocoileus virginianus). Order Sirenia: 
«manatí» (Trichechus inunguis). Order Cetácea: «tonina» (Inia geoffrensis). Richard 
Schomburgk also described and it illustrated numerous species of fish of Guayana, among 
those that highlight those «pavones» (Cichla spp.), «mataguaros» (Crenicichla spp.) and 
«caribes» (Serrasalmus spp.) 
Adolfo Ernst arrived in Venezuela in 1861 to work in the revision of Agustín Codazzi's 
collections. Of their work descriptions of the fauna of the country arose, especially of the 
mammals. Their works on fossils, especially the mastodon (Haplomastodon guyanensis) 
they are of great importance. She/he carried out numerous scientific expeditions in the 
valley of Caracas, The Asleep ones, The Turtle and island of Margarita, material that was 
deposited partly in the recently created National Museum (1871) that him same she/he was 
founded. This investigator also creó the class of Natural History (1874) and the library of 
the Central University of Venezuela (1876) that was the origin of the National Library. 
Use of the fauna in the past: Enough testimonies that point out the necessity of the hunt 
among the population European arrival to the territory of what today is Venezuela exist and 
its existence is known among the natives. With the population slave's conduction, this 
activity was increased by the necessity that had to feed her with meat. They are several the 
mentions of the cachicamos use and chigüires in the preparation of hams and their use in 
the Lent on the part of the clergymen; the first ones because they possess a shell similar to 
that of the turtles and the seconds to be amphibious, reason for which I/you/they were 
called «pigs of water». It was possibly at the end of the XVIII century and beginnings of 
the XIX century when the use of the fauna began and the environmental modifications 
became more notorious. These activities brought a sobreexplotación and partial extinction 
of species as a result due to the indiscriminate hunt and to the destruction of the hábitats. 
Examples of that activity depredadora were the exploitation of the deer (Mazama and 
Odocoileus), turtle arrau (Podocnemis expansa), blue white (Casmerodius albus) and the 
«mob» (Leucophoyx thula), cayman of the Orinoco (Crocodylus intermedius) with ends of 
use of the meat, feathers and skins. The indiscriminate slaughter of dogs of water, jaguars, 
manatíes, paujíes, bears frontinos, green turtles, morrocoyes and dribbles, it was 
remarkable. It is proven the partial disappearance of deer, caymen, chigüires, dantas, tigers, 
pumas and cunaguaros of the region located the N of the Orinoco. Pedro Cunill Grau 
(1988) it indicates that for Ciudad Bolívar they were exported more than 1 million of 
leathers of these species between 1856 and 1874. At the moment a total of 18 species of 
mammals, 8 of birds and 20 of reptiles, they appear threatened or in extinction danger, 
among them the «cuspa» (Cabassus unicintus), the «giant cachicamo» (Dasypus kappleri), 
the «giant cuspa» (Priodontes maximus), the «I dare frontino» (Tremarctos ornatus), the 
«dog of water» (Speothus venaticus), the «cunaguaro» (Felis pardalis), the «manatí 
(Trichechus manatus), the «deer Andean matacán» (Mazama rufina), the «deer 
caramerudo» (Odocoileus virginianus), the «paují» (Pauxi pauxi), the «turtle arrau» 
(Podocnemis expansa), the «green turtle» (Chelonia mydas), the «morrocoy» (Geochelone 
carbonaria), the «cayman of the Orinoco» (Crocodylus intermedius) and the «cayman of the 
coast» (Crocodylus acutus). 
XX century 
The contribution of foreign scientists: Lutz, this investigator visited Venezuela invited by 
the general Juan Vicente Gómez. She/he worked mainly in the area of the states Aragua and 
Carabobo and their results were published in 1955. Manuel Núñez Tovar collaborated with 
the Venezuelan entomologist and he carried out studies it has more than enough medical 
zoology identifying species of dipteral hematófagos (Culicidæ), scorpions, mollusks, 
amphibians and reptiles with his parasites. She/he is also possibly the first investigator that 
makes a synopsis «ecological» of the lake of Valencia. 
Janis Racenis came to Venezuela coming from Ukraine and she/he stood out as specialist in 
«the devil's merry-go-rounds» (Odonata), describing most of the Venezuelan species. 
She/he also carried out biogeografía studies and ecology of the birds. Equally it contributed 
to the creation of the Museum of Biology and of the Institute of Tropical Zoology of the 
Central University of Venezuela, as well as of the magazine Biological Record 
Venezuélica. 
Janis Roze stood out for its investigations in herpetology, being the first author that 
produced a summary on the ophidian of Venezuela, describing great number of species and 
indicating the geographical distribution and giving some data of «ofidismo» related with 
potential dangers. 
Johani Ojasti was devoted to the study of the mammals, mainly rodent and quirópteros. 
Equally, she/he carried out important taxes in applied ecology, especially the related to the 
chigüire, their handling and conservation. 
The contribution of Venezuelan scientists: Manuel Ángel González Sponga has studied the 
arachnids, especially the spiders (Opiliones) and scorpions. Equally she/he has investigated 
the microfauna of the caves. 
José Vicente Scorza published jointly with José Francisco Torrealba several studies it has 
more than enough scorpions and therapeutic rehearsals against the pneumonia and 
tripanosomiasis. Equally she/he was devoted to the study of the biology and ecology of 
vectors of tropical illnesses, publishing several works has more than enough flebótomos 
and culícidos. Their investigations understand the biology, the ecology and the distribution 
and behavior of parasites transmitters of tropical illnesses. 
Antonio and Carlos Machado wrote for the work Image of Venezuela: a space vision, an 
itemized summary on the fauna of the country, their origin and characteristic main. These 
authors point out that the Venezuelan fauna is product of the isolation that took place in the 
American continent for more than 50 million years, and the reestablishment of the contact 
and migration of animals from the different regions through Central America. 


 

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