In 1856 the County of Amazons is believed, well-known as Territory of Black River, the one which
it was part of the County of Guayana. This is constituted as Federal Territory in 1864.
In 1940 it is conformed by the departments: Atabapo, Atures, Casiquiare and Black River.
July 29 1992 are high to the state category. September 24 1994 you
it divides in 04 departments.
The growth of the state has contributed to improve the communication roads in the area.
Although their main centers populated distan much of being big cities, we would rot
to mention: Maroa, Ocamo, San Carlos of Black River, San Fernando of Atabapo, Santa Rosa
of Amanadona, Tama-Tama and Yavita like expansion poles for the XXI century.
Region of Guayana.
This: Brazil and Bolivar.
177 617 km2.
Percentage of the national territory
19,38%. it is the second entity with bigger surface of the country.
In Puerto Ayacucho it is the Museo Etnológico, with their exhibition that shows the history of
the indigenous ethnoses of the area. If it is weekend, the boulevard it charges life with the market
indigenous and their autochthonous pieces. Many take advantage to escape until Casuarito, a
Colombian village that you leave from Puerto Ayacucho's jetty. In the outskirts it is the one
Toboggan of the Forest, a natural decline that finishes in a great grave of icy waters. One
of the most popular sports it is the rafting for the streams of Atures and Maipures. Another
attractiveness is the Spa Blue Well with its crystalline waters. Five exist majestic
natural monuments: Stone of the Cocuy, a rock that almost possesses in the summit three peaks
vertical. It is an unique geologic formation in the world. Hill Autana, the sacred mountain
of 1 300 m that is crossed by a cave formed by cuarcitas in their superior part, only
in the planet. Tepuyes formation that shares with Bolivar. Stone of the turtle, one
great rock that likens a turtle petrified amid the forest. And Colored Stone, one
mass of black stone that has recorded petroglifos. To 120 meters of the floor there is a cayman and
then a great snake whose head is guided toward the south. Under the snake and to both
sides of the cayman, you can appreciate a man, a bird, an enormous escalopendra and you figure
that they liken petroglifos of Aztec origin. It is worthwhile to travel until Samariapo and Port
Venado to take a boat to Island of Raton, Isla Morrocoy or Isla Paloma.
It is part of the guayano-Brazilian shield whose basement of age precámbrica is
composed by metamorphic and granitic rocks. On this sustrato
is the Formation Roraima. Amazons belong to the County fisiográfica of Guayana, originated by processes
of fracturación, rising, desnivelación and reduction taken place by currents
superficial and underground of waters. The floors come from geologic formations of 1
300 to 1 400 million years, and they have been subjected to meteorización processes and lixiviación
caused by the abundant rains and the high temperatures. This has originated floors of
Two flat areas exist: to the North, the valley of the rivers Manapiare-Ventuari, and to the South, the
penillanura of the river Casiquiare. It has three big mountains: Maigualida, Parima and
Urucusiro-Tapirapeco-fog. The relief is formed for solid granitic, plateaus and
tepuyes that occupy extensive sectors, surpasses the 1 000 meters high and they begin in
the end noroccidental, going to the East and the South. They highlight formations with heights
superiors to 2 000 m.s.n.m., as the hills Guanay and Yaví.
The annual half temperature oscillates between 18º and 26º Celsius. According to the classification Köeppen the one
climate is tropical with three varieties: rainy climate of tropical forest (Af), tropical monzónico
(Am) and of savanna (Aw). The maxima precipitation values are presented toward the Southwest, and
they reach between 3 300 and 3 500 mm.
The net hidrográfica is organized in two main basins: that of the Orinoco (it leaves high and
mediates) and it leaves of the basin of the Black Guainía-river. In this region the river Orinoco 960 km travels. Among
their tributaries highlight: Ventuari, Padamo, Cunucunuma, Atabapo and Sipapo. The basin of those
rivers Guainía-river Black drena their waters to the river Amazons in Brazil;
has as main flowing to the river Casiquiare. Here the hydraulic phenomenon of the Brazo Casiquiare is given that
it communicates the basins of the rivers Orinoco and Amazons. The drainage net, when reflecting on
more resistant formations, gives origin to jumps and streams. Other important rivers: Cataniapo,
Manapiare, Mavaca, Ocamo, Siapa, Orinoco in their high basin and
mediates with their streams Atures and Maipures.
It presents the biggest diversity in vegetable formations of the country, distributed in: Savanna of
dry floors with poor herbaceous vegetation in next sectors to Puerto Ayacucho.
Savannas of humid floors in the low basin of the river Sipapo and the low lands of the Orinoco.
The forests that cover 92% of the state, are formed by trees of more than 20 meters
of height. The main wooden species are: cedar, carapa, mijao, apamate and saqui -
saqui. When overcoming the 1 500 meters on the level of the sea the vegetation it is represented for
herbaceous species and bushes of little development. In the entity some 5 000 are known
botanical species that represent the fourth part of the dear flora of Venezuela.
The most representative fauna of mammals is integrated by the monkey tití, the monkey claws, the
amazon squirrel, the báquiro white cheek, the otter and the giant cachicamo. Among the birds you
they count: the night paují, the bird paragua, the guacamaya, and great variety of species of
toucans. The turtles are common in the net of rivers and pipes, among them they highlight the terecay and
the stubborn turtle of the Amazons. Among the crocodiles it is common to observe the black stifle. And
of the ophidian ones, the snake lora and the mapanare of the Amazons they are the most representative. In
this area exists varied species of frogs endemic arborícolas.
To the south of the Orinoco is 80% of the mining resources of the country. According to studies
carried out in the area, the grateful mineral resources are: manganese, iron, gold, titanium,
uranium, diamonds, molybdenum, bauxite, tin and chromium.
According to the XII General Census of Population and Housing 1990, the state has a population
of 55 717 hab. This populational development places it in the twentieth fourth place with regard to the one
total national, with a density of 0,34 hab/km2, being one of the more entities
uninhabited of the country. The department of Atures concentrates the total population's 88,32%,
while the rest presents a great geographical dispersion and it is located in small centers
towns that follow the course of the main rivers. Their population has experienced in those
last three decades a relative growth. For 1971 it was of 84,54%, for 1981 of 110,49%
and it stops 1990 it was of 22%. The Indigenous Census of 1992 the autochthonous population estimated in 43 366
people, distributed in 17 ethnic groups. The most numerous are: Yanomami, Guahíbo,
Piaroa and Yekuana. Each ethnos possesses a different language, as well as a cultural tradition that
it conditions the establishment pattern, the space and the use of the resources
Four national parks exist: Serranía The Fog, located to the south of the state, in those
limits with Brazil; Yapacana, located to the south of the state, to the Southwest of the fork of the river
Ventuari with the river Orinoco; Parima Tapirapecó, to the south, in the nascent of the river Orinoco, in the
Sierra of Parima in the limits with Brazil; and Duida - Marahuaca, in the central sector of the state.
It is an economically depressed region. Its population's high percentage depends on the one
located constitutional. The agricultural activity, practiced under the modality of “conucos”, it is very
limited by the drop quality of the floors. It produces few surpluses to market, being
their main items: caraota, corn, sideburn, banana, yucca, cambur, mapuey and cane. The
cattle raising is extensive and inefficient, while the poultry keeping is not able to compete with the
production extraregional. Great part of the potential of the fishing resources is underemployed, to
to weigh of existing in the area species like: Lined Bagre, bocachico, poor target, curvinata,
golden, palometa and bully. The commercialization is restricted to Puerto Ayacucho, where one
single company takes charge of buying, to refrigerate and to sell the products. The aserrío of wood
and the extraction of secondary forest products is rudimentary and it is subjected to strong
permisología restrictions. Among their main forest resources they are counted: Rubber
hevea, conger, I clot, guamo, yagrumo and shoemaker. The wealth and abundance of landscapes
natural it favors the tourist potential.
The indigenous presence is very strong in the area, of there that they still stay traditions that
they date of several hundred of years. The means of transport is one of those symbols of the ethnoses
that they inhabit the state and that they refuse to die. The curiara continues representing the road
expedite to go from a side to another. “The Indian boats don't call themselves in the Orinoco canoes, but
curiaras”. This the father wrote it Felipe Salvador Gilij, missionary that the Amazonia traveled
Venezuelan during the second half of the XVIII century. The curiara is made of a single stick; it is
small, it oscillates between the 3 and the 8 meters of longitude. The yekuana and yanomami highlight
as their big makers. The construction begins with the selection of a tree of the one
appropriate size. It continues with the process of to extract or to carve the curiara to hachazos. Then
comes the emptying of the trunk, what demands a meticulous treatment to give him forms oval to the hole,
the ensanchamiento of their interior applying fire until achieving that the opening acquires the one
convenient diameter and later on, the placement of the necessary crosspieces. Those
curiaras, once waste as crafts, they can be useful for the elaboration of the one