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From immemorial times the man has used the plants like source of foods, medicines and 
materials to manufacture his dresses, utensils, weapons and housings; the wood allowed 
him to dominate the fire; in the craft it substituted the stone, to be easier of to work and to 
have certain durability. The wild state of the plants forced the man to move continually in 
its search. The observation of the plants for many towns during millennia, allowed to go 
knowing the characteristics of those that were given in each region, it produced local 
nomenclatures, it determined the properties, it pointed out the means in which you/they 
were developed better and this way, accumulated the group of knowledge that would be the 
origin of the botany with the time. The application of these knowledge to the life, led to the 
cultivation of species selected under the means and more appropriate conditions; the 
agriculture was born this way; the advance of this through the time allowed to cultivate and 
to obtain varieties of plants with better flavor, yield and resistance, transforming the wild 
species in other more useful ones, to such a point that, at the moment, they are no longer 
many of the original species. The knowledge of the plants and their uses, that is to say, the 
applied botany, it allowed the development of the agriculture and it contributed to the 
increase of the production, constituting links of the agroindustrial chain, in which is the 
botany the starting point of this important system. In their evolution in Venezuela can be 
considered several stages. 
Before Columbus 
Written documentation, and the possible information contained in petroglifos doesn't exist 
it has not been interpreted in this sense; great part of the archaeological remains has gotten 
lost, but it is known that the aboriginal Americans had diverse origins (Asian, melanesio, 
Australian) and that the Venezuelan territory was an area of traffic of many migrations, that 
which explains that the tribes had different cultures, development and language; the most 
important were the aruacos, the caribeses and the timotocuicas. José María Cruxent 
archaeological studies and other investigators, they have checked that, in the occident, the 
natives developed an agriculture with the help of the cultivation of the corn (Zea mays), due 
to the remains of ears of more than 3.000 years ago, as well as of the stones to mill the 
grain that you/they have been. 
XVI centuries - XVIII 
When it happens the Discovery, a civilization existed predominantly in the country caribe. 
It is believed that they came from the south of the Amazons and they had invaded great part 
of the territory of the future Venezuela, occupying from the Guayanas to the Antilles; 
strong and warring, nomadic race, had like culture center the valleys of Caracas, Aragua 
and Valencia; they combatted against the aruacos or arauacos that occupied some areas and 
also, in you Walk them, against the timotocuicas. The cultivations made them in small 
parcels or called orchards «conucos» (voice taína); these were mainly the corn (Zea mays) 
and in the regions Westerner and central, until heights of 1.000 m, for selection, their 
ancestors achieved an ear with many grains that it was good for the atoles preparation and 
kind of a called cake «round maize loaf» that was their bread. In the regions of the Orinoco 
and in east, warm and humid, they cultivated a tuber, the sweet yucca (Manihot dulcis) and 
also the bitter yucca (Manihot esculenta), this last one very poisonous; their use is a victory 
of its genius, because they were able to eliminate the toxic by means of a very simple 
mechanical procedure, grating it and then squeezing it in the «sebucán», to obtain this way 
a product that you/they used to make kind of a big cookie, the «casabe», of easy 
conservation; they were also able to prepare of the same yucca a granulated flour, the 
«mañoco» and even more, they could destroy for the heat the contained poison in the juice 
of this yucca or «yare», with the one which, after having fermented, they prepared a drink. 
In the coast they cultivated other plants of rich roots in starch, as the ocumo (Xanthosoma 
sagittifolium), the one that you/they could consume after discovering that it required to be 
cooked to eliminate the oxalato glasses that it contains; their cultivation is before 
Columbus, it can only reproduce by means of cut rhizomes and planted by the man, in this 
the native's work is revealed; also, they cultivated the mapuey (Dioscorea trifida); the lairén 
(Calathea alloouia) and the batata (Ipomoea batatas). In the region of the first floor 
Orinoco, grew wild the cocoa (Theobroma mariae) and his species. In you Walk them, 
where for the cold and the height the corn neither the yucca were not given, they sowed 
ruba (Ullucus tuberosus), the cuiba or huisisay (tuberous Oxalis), the Creole celery or 
arracacha (Arracacia xanthorriza) and the potato (Solanum tuberosum) that existed wild. To 
conserve the vegetable earth they made walls of stones; for the watering, lagoons that 
you/they called «quimpúes», they avoided this way that the conucos caused erosion. The 
valley and the city of Caracas owe their name to a plant that the aboriginal ones called 
«caracas» (Amaranthus viridis) of whose gender several species exist; their leaves and 
especially their seeds, have a high nutritious value; it was food for the Aztecs and the 
Mayan ones and possibly, for the Venezuelan natives. In the plains of it Hurries, a tree of 
the family of the leguminous ones, the chigo exists (Campsiandra comosa) of whose seeds 
the otomacos and maipures and today their residents, make a flour to prepare atoles and 
cakes. Another example of the use of the local vegetable resources in the riverbanks of the 
Orinoco and their tributaries, they are the palms; these provided to the native dresses and 
housings; of them it constitutes food, the heart of the span (Euterpe edulis); in other 
species, their fruits, as those of the moriche (Mauritia flexuosa) of whose trunk also 
obtained, a starch that you/they call «yuruma», with which you/they prepare a fermented 
drink; and until the worm curculionido that the parasita, it is eatable. Of the seed of the seje 
(Jessenia bataua), a very fine oil is extracted; with its leaves they make baskets, and they 
use the wood of the shaft; they can also eat the fruit of the pijiguao (Guilielma gasipaes) 
and those of other palms. In the arid lands of the coast they are given, the pineapple 
(Pineapple comosus), the curujujul (Bromelia karatas); the tuna (Opuntia ficus-indicates) 
and the fact (Cereus griseus). In the mountains, the guanábana (Annona muricata); the 
sucker or muco (Melicocca bijugatus) of whose seeds obtained a flour with which you/they 
made cakes; the mammee (American Mammea), the jobo (Spondias mombin) and many 
more. A practical use of the knowledge that you/they had of the properties of the plants 
was its technique to fish using a maceration of the denominated plants «barbascos», 
belonging to the families of the Leguminous ones, Teofrastáceas and Poligonáceas, with 
which drugged the fish to capture them. To hunt, they used another similar procedure 
poisoning their arrows with «I will cure», very active poison that you/they obtained of the 
juice of the called plant will cure or mavacure (Strychnos guianensis), of the same gender 
of the one that provides the strychnine in África; for this they mixed its sap with the one of 
other; it was used mainly by the piaroas of the high Orinoco; as this poison it acts solely 
injected in the blood, the animals this way captured they could eat up without danger; only 
for numerous rehearsals and observations it is that they should have ended up obtaining this 
chemical compound so special that today it is used in surgery. As recipient they used, 
besides the vessels of mud, the fruits of the totumo (Crescentia cujete). As for the use of the 
vegetables as medications, they knew many, among other, the cuspa (Cusparia trifoliata), 
call also keno of New Andalusia, white keno or yellow keno that used in the treatment of 
the fevers; in some mountainous and cold regions of the country (hill of Turimiquire and 
you Walk them), they exist the tree of the keno (Cinchona oYcinalis) and of other species 
of kenos, although one knows that their discovery was made in the Peru. As coloring they 
used the onoto (Bixa orellana) that blended with fat, they applied to the skin for protection 
or ornament. In the region of Guayana the ipecacuana exists (Richardia scabra) whose root 
is vomitive. Another of the indigenous cultivations is the tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) 
whose leaves used to smoke and frequently, to chew, being a toxic plant, it is not known 
how they learned how to use it; they also used it the piaches (priests, doctors and herbalists) 
in their magic rites to try to cure the illnesses. They obtained several hallucinogenic 
substances, among other the yopo or cojoba (Piptadenia goes on pilgrimage) whose seeds 
contain an alkaloid, which were able to extract by means of an alkali, the ash; like it is only 
absorbed for via parenteral, they used the inhalation, an entire group of chemical and 
physiologic processes difficult to understand how they devised them. They knew how to 
make some pharmaceutical preparations with the plants and the discovery of their 
properties, reveals a systematizing and observation, taking charge of her the piaches or 
doctor-priests who conserve and they transmit these knowledge. 

Contribute of the discovery and the conquest: When arriving the Europeans to the New 
World, they found completely different and unknown plants; many were taken to Spain, 
this way the admiral Christopher Columbus, in letter to the Catholic Kings says that in 
1498, it took the corn, as well as the pepper, tobacco and other; he also observed in his third 
trip that the Indians of it Gave birth to they took as dressed cloths of cotton of diverse 
colors; the cotton was the only cultivation of the caribeses. Later on, in 1543, they took the 
potato or potato that at the beginning considered it poisonous in Europe, but that then it 
ended up being the base of the feeding of the Europeans; they met the peanut (Arachis 
hypogaea), the one which according to some, was food characteristic of slaves, but brother 
Bartolomé of The Houses said that «more flavorful ...era that the hazelnuts and the nuts...» 
Some considered that the 2 more important plants with those that America contributed were 
the potato and the keno, but undoubtedly many others were very valuable for their 
applications, as the corn, the ipecacuana, the rubber, etc. During the colonial time the 
Europeans had to learn how to consume the fruits of the tropical plants, but they missed 
those from Europe to those that were accustomed. Already, from the first trips, the real 
orders indicated that the expeditions should bring seeds, plants and until livestock, to 
cultivate and to raise in America, using cultivation methods known by them; it was this 
way like the plow was introduced, and you plant as the cereals, wheat, rice, barley; 
condiments like onion and garlic; vegetables like carrots, turnip, lettuce, etc., and many 
other; happening a considerable exchange of them between Europe and America, of the one 
which both they benefitted. However, in the tropic some cultivations were not feasible, as 
that of the olive tree, what brought a trade; of Spain they came oil, olives, came, and of 
here, they remitted cocoa and other; the cane of sugar (Saccharum oYcinarum), conduction 
to Venezuela around 1730, as well as the indigo one (Indigófera tinctórea), introduced, 
according to François Depons in 1774 like plant tintórea. In this form they went arriving to 
the country numerous plants and others were exported. The discovery of the properties of 
the keno, used for the first time by the countess of Chinchón, in Lima, it was given to know 
in Europe in 1632. 
First writings about the Creole plants: They begin in the country in the XVII century in 
very modest form; one of the first ones in referring to them is the Spanish columnist 
Francisco López of Gómara who in their book general History of the India, published in 
Zaragoza in 1552, in a chapter it describes many plants, their properties and uses for the 
native of Venezuela. They also publish their observations some religious, among them, José 
Gumilla, Spanish Jesuit that the south of the country travels, and in its book The cultured 
Orinoco, natural, civil and geographical history of this great river and of its mighty slopes, 
published for the first time in Madrid in 1741, it points out, «...los fruit-bearing trees that 
cultivate the Indians, grasses and medicinal roots that spring from that floor...» Then 
Antonio Caulín's observations come, Spanish of the order of the observant ones of Granada 
who in 1779, it publishes in its work History corographica, the description of the plants and 
the cultivated trees and wild, their fruits and eatable and medicinal roots, as well as of their 
Botanical studies in Venezuela: They begin when several European botanists come; as it 
seems, the Court requested to the Swedish botanical notable Carlos of Linneo, its 
collaboration for the study of the American plants and this designated its favorite pupil, 
Pedro Loefling who member of the Expedition of Limits of 1750, was named presided over 
by José of Iturriaga. It was Loefling the first botanist that arrived to the country and who 
makes gatherings in the east (1754-1755); then, in 1756, it was in the Orinoco, where 
regrettably it died of pernicious fevers, but it was their manuscript, «Flora cumanensis». 
Linneo examined, it classified its collections of plants and it published the results in Plantae 
Americanae. Later on other botanists came. To the costs of Choir, the baron Nicolás 
Joseph von Jacquin, Dutch, fitólogo who was managing of the gardens of Schönbrunn 
(imperial palace of Vienna). They were in Caracas between 1786 and 1788, the gardeners 
collectors Bredemayer and Schutt, of the Expedition of Maertner; their collections were 
examined by Jacquin. 
XIX century 
Botanical studies for foreigners: With permission of the court, they arrive to the country 
Alejandro of Humboldt, German, geographer and naturalist and Aimé Bonpland, French, 
doctor and botanical who, of 1799 at 1800, the east and south travel; Bonpland gathered 
most of the plants. In 1808 they published in Paris the work Plantae Aequinoctiales and of 
1815 at 1825, in collaboration with the botanical Kunth, Nova Generates et Species 
plantarum, where they described 1.170 Venezuelan plants; in the book it Travels to the 
regions equinocciales of the new continent, in 1816; they pointed out 60.000 plants and 
they discovered 6.300 new native species, among other, the cuspa or cusparia (Cusparia 
trifoliata), with which the missionaries treated them the fevers that contracted in Guayana. 
Their studies gave to know the flora and fauna of Venezuela and they interested many 
others. The botany studies had in Venezuela a great development with the arrival of 
scanners who you/they began to come from the beginnings of the Republic: this way, 
between 1818 and 1846, Lockhardt was; in 1823 and 1824, Goudot arrived to Puerto 
Cabello; in 1824, Augusto Plée visited Maracaibo. After the War of Independence, of 1836 
at 1861, Johann Wilhelm Karl Moritz settled down in the Colonia Tovar and it traveled, 
also, the plains and you Walk them; in 1838, Robert H. Schomburgk, German to the service 
of England, came from Brazil, it traveled the regions of the Roraima and of the Orinoco; in 
1840 and 1841, G. Fr was. Ed. Otto (1812-1885); in 1841, Jean Jules Abuts, L.J. Schlim 
and N. Funck, traveled the north part of Venezuela; in 1845, Schlim and Funck returned; of 
1841 at 1855, the Dutch diplomat Reinhardt Lansberge goes, it gathered and sent Europe 
many alive plants, especially orchids; during 3 years, of 1843 at 1846, Hermann Karsten, 
the central area traveled, then it returned in 1847 and it visited the coast, it published their 
observations in the Florae columbiae terrarumque adjacentium select specimina; for 1848 
Hermann Wagener came that studied the coast and Merida; of 1849 at 1859, Karl 
Ferdinand Appun, the country traveled and it published its trip in the book In the tropics, in 
1871. For half-filled of XIX century, 14 foreign botanists had studied, made gatherings and 
published about the flora of the country. Although some you residenciaron during several 
years in Venezuela, almost all returned to their origin countries, except for Moritz that 
stayed definitively, but that it didn't form school. By the middle of century (1851), W. 
Purdie arrives that carries out a botanical expedition, but its data are not had; of 1852 at 
1857, the German pharmacist J. Golmer, you resided in Caracas and studied its flora; of 
1853 at 1857, Augusto Fendler, made explorations in the Colonia Tovar; in 1853, Richard 
Spruce, English, explored the Black river and it gathered 1.000 species very well studied 
that it published in Flora Brasiliensis; in 1854 the German Birschell, of Hanover, came to 
gather plants; in 1861 it arrived, coming from Puerto Rico, René of Grosourdy, doctor and 
French chemist who had studied the flora of that island. For that same time (1861), it 
arrives in Venezuela Adolfo Ernst who published numerous taxonomía works and in 
particular, have more than enough poisonous and ornamental plants. Later on, other 
naturalists came and botanical: in 1864 colonel Wirt Robinson; in 1873, Otto Kunze; in 
1875 M.V was. Lyon, in 1883, F.R.A. Johow and A.F.W. Schimper who gathered plants in 
the surroundings of Caracas and in the coast; in 1896, they obtained important you collect 
H.H. Rusby and Ray W. Squirer in the first floor Orinoco and enter 1897 and 1898, the 
English naturalist Eugene André visited the region of the Caura. On the whole, during the 
XIX century, it is known that they carried out botanical studies in Venezuela, a total of 29 
foreign scientists; they sent their collections to museums of their respective countries and 
they published, mainly, studies taxonómicos; this allowed to enlarge the scientific-botanical 
knowledge of the plants of the country and to give to know their applications in the 
exterior, but here in Venezuela they were not disclosed and they had very little influence, 
since the works published as a result of this investigations were it in Latin or in the 
language of their authors, that which hindered their reading; to it was added it the national 
political uncertainty that didn't allow their due use. Three of them you residenciaron 
definitively in the country, Moritz, Golmer and Ernst, but only this formed a school of 
Natural History. 
First botanical studies for Venezuelans: The study of the botany was carried out in the Real 
and Papal University of Caracas, in the pénsum of Medicine, as it consists for the Report 
presented by the protomédico, José Joaquín Hernández to the rector of this University, José 
Manuel Oropeza, December of 1819, 22 where it points out that, «...el Catedrático reads in 
the First Year, Principles of Botany, Anatomy and Physiology...», following this way the 
laws of Castile and India. These knowledge were those that allowed that, in the XIX 
century, the first botanical studies began made by Venezuelans. The first one was José 
María Vargas, doctor, who during their demurrage in Europe perfected their knowledge and 
was related with the Spanish botanical notable Agustín Píramo of Candolle; to their return 
to the country, sent him, between 1825 and 1835, several small collections of plants that it 
gathered and personally it classified, some of them, picked up by Juan Manuel Cajigal in 
the Ávila; was interested, together with José of the Cruz Limardo, in extracting the alkaloid 
of the kenos of the country. It was also studious of this science Fermín Toro. Another of the 
first Venezuelan botanists was the graduated José María Benítez who, in 1824, discovered 
in the mountain range of the Costa the tree of the keno (Cinchona oblongifolia mutis) and 
with her, the malaria combatted and it treated 15.000 sick persons of fevers; in 1828, it 
presented a report on it to the Medical Ability of Caracas; in 1833 it published its «I Study 
on the tree of the cow» (Brosium utilei) and it checked that it was not food, but an useful 
latex for the industry; is the first Venezuelan that applies its botanical knowledge to the 
industry and who carried out the first exam bromatológico, that which deserved him the 
recognition of the Society of Friends of the Country; in 1834 studied the rubber of 
Venezuela (Ficus dendrocida) and it recommended its use to waterproof cloths; in 1844, it 
published its book Principles for the medical matter of the country in dictionary form that is 
the first one «medical botany» Venezuelan; in her it describes 105 plants, its properties and 
uses; it can also be considered as the first scientific work and divulgativa of the application 
of the national flora in the medicine and the industry. 
Botanical studies in agriculture and medicine: In 1828 Simón Bolívar said: «...Pienso that 
the cultivation of the coffee should substitute it for other more merchantable, as the indigo 
one, the cotton and other speculations of internal character, or to acquire news of objects 
that could improve our industry, because if we don't vary the commercial means, we would 
perish inside little...» the Liberator that studies should be made Considered and to apply the 
science to this activity. To favor the development of the country, the general José Antonio 
Páez was founded in Caracas, in 1829, the Society Economic Friends of the Country, which 
stimulated the application from the sciences to the agriculture and the industry. August 16 
1844 were dictated an ordinance settling down in the Tuy a School of Agriculture, the first 
of the country. In 1849, Antonio Leocadio Guzmán, in his exhibition to the Congress 
pointed out that, «inexplicable that there is not a class of Botany in the whole country, 
neither of Physics and Chemistry applied to the Agriculture, neither of same Agriculture...» 
In 1852, consultant Manuel María Lisboa publishes his Relationship from a trip to 
Venezuela, New Granada and Ecuador, where he is information about the agriculture in 
that time. In 1857, 2 doctors, Lino J. Goes bad and Gerónimo White Eusebio, Apuntaciones 
published for the medical flora of Venezuela. In 1861 the French René of Grosourdy comes 
from Puerto Rico who was in Venezuela up to 1862 and it traveled the regions of the south 
and east like official agent, gathering especímenes of natural history; offered the 
government the publication of its work The botanical doctor medical Creole-Flora from the 
Antilles and part corresponding of the American continent, as well as its Summary of 
vegetable therapy, where studied the medical applications of many plants; it could not be 
carried out it for political circumstances (Federal War) and Grosourdy ended up publishing 
it in Paris (1864). Also in 1861 it arrived in Caracas Adolfo Ernst who you resided in this 
and during 38 years was devoted to the teaching; in 1874 it began in the Central University 
of Venezuela the class of Natural History; the museum and the university library become 
low their position and this way begins a systematic development of this science and their 
practical applications. Another important fact happened in 1861 was the foundation in 
Caracas of a factory for the elaboration and industrialization of the cocoa, denominated 
Chocolate The India C.A.; it was the first industry of foods in the country and has stayed 
until the present. Of 1859 at 1863, the Federal War razed to the country, the agriculture 
suffered serious dysfunction again; in an effort to improve the situation, in 1864, the 
Executive authorized the patent of a Casa Protectora of the Agriculture. In 1866, Red 
Arístides, doctor and writer, together with Manuel Vicente Díaz, they publish botanical 
Explorations in Guayana; that same year Ernst is founded in Caracas the «Society of 
Physical and Natural Sciences» that it included the study of the botany and in her many 
studies were presented. In 1880, Gerónimo Pompa presents its book indigenous 
Medications, in which picks up the popular experiences about the medical use of the native 
plants. July of 1874, 11 the national government decrees the formation of botanical 
gardens. In 1876 it was created the class of Agriculture and Zoology in the Central 
University of Venezuela, under the direction of Ángel poplar; but this intent failed. In 1876, 
Vicente Marcano, Venezuelan chemist, begins the publication of a series of works in 
collaboration with the medical Adolfo Frydensberg; also, he discovered the «perseita» 
contained in the seed of the avocado and it extracted of the sapota (Calocarpum sapota), a 
substance similar to the «quercita»; also the «bromelina» contained in the pineapple 
(Pineapple comosus). In 1891, Marcano published its Essais d'agronomie tropicale; studied 
the vegetable physiology in the tropic and the chemical composition of fruits, cereals and 
toxic plants and its relationship with the tropical agronomy and the industry; it contributed 
notably to the scientific knowledge of the plants, the agriculture and the industry. In 1877, 
José Antonio Díaz publishes his work The Venezuelan farmer that is the first envelope the 
matter in the country. Of 1877 at 1878, Manuel María Puts on, it publishes a study on «Our 
copaiba balm» and in 1881, another about the «Natural History: You plant useful of 
Venezuela». In 1881, Ernst published its study The most important families in the 
vegetable Kingdom, especially those that are of interest in the medicine, the agriculture and 
industry or that they are represented in the flora of Venezuela, it is the summary of its 
course of botany systematic dictation in the Central University of Venezuela; it also 
published the Notes it has more than enough products vegetable employees in medicine and 
the industrial arts, of Carlos Mehr, translated and scored by him. In 1884, The plants and 
vegetable products dedicated especially to the medicine, in the National Exhibition of 
Venezuela 1883. Ernst is one of people that more they contributed to the study and 
application of the botany in Venezuela. That same year, the Ministry of Development 
celebrated contract to establish the cultivation of the ramio (snowy Boehmeria) and the 
export of its fiber. Another naturalist that acts in that time is Alfredo Jahn, Venezuelan, 
engineer, geographer and historian who in 1887 you/he/she gathered plants in the high 
Orinoco and in the Black river, which were classified by Ernst. For 1888, R.R. Freites 
Pineda publishes its «I Study on a plant of the Family of the Equisetáceas» and in 1889, 
another envelope «The low coconut tree the hygienic and therapeutic point of view»; also, 
in 1889, Manuel Landaeta Rosales includes in his work Great geographical summary, 
statistic and historical of Venezuela a chapter with the list of the vegetables of the country, 
classified by Ernst. In 1891, Stolen Ceferino, it describes the wild lily, which classifies and 
it denominates «Iris benitesia», in honor to J.M. Benítez. In 1893 an Agrarian Institute was 
decreed for the teaching of the agronomy and in 1896, the Agronomic School is believed. 
In that year, Francisco Antonio Rísquez writes on the «The therapy and the American 
flora», and in 1898 it publishes the work Venezuelan Pharmacopeia, where it points out 80 
plants medicinal Creoles. In 1896, the medical Manuel Antonio Ten published Treaty of the 
feeding, in which describes 143 nutritious plants. In 1897, Simón Montiel describes «the 
white bosuga of our forests», probably the Fragara monophylla Lam. whose bark contains 
«berberidina», which you/they used as medicine against the jaundice and also, to tint cloths, 
threads, etc. In 1900, León Lameda made efforts to begin an industry with the fiber of the 
banana to manufacture paper pulp. 
XX century 
The same as in the previous century, they were devoted to the study of the botany and their 
applications, a group formed by foreign botanical experts that came to the country and 
another constituted by Venezuelan personalities in several disciplines; because during the 
first half of the century both groups generally worked in independent form, we will point 
out their activities for separate. 
Botanical studies for foreigners: According to the available information, during the first 50 
years they came to the country, sponsored by important institutions of the exterior, 23 
qualified botanists of several nationalities (11 North Americans, 2 Germans, 2 Englishmen, 
a Russian, a Swiss and an Argentinean, 5 without precise origin) who carried out botanical 
explorations gathering plants in diverse regions. Contrary to that happened in the previous 
century, in this century, the national government, interested by these studies, hired at 3 of 
these botanists: Henri Pittier, Lewlly Williams and J. Steyermark, that which reveals the 
importance that she/he had acquired this science; 2 of them, they were resided in the 
country (Pittier and Steyermark) and they contributed in form notable to their scientific 
development. With the obtained observations, 6 publications were made in the exterior; 
they were gathered 15.743 especímenes approximately (their number should be bigger, 
because it lacks information of some expeditions). Most of the collections, unfortunately, 
they were deposited in institutions of the exterior, but already in the last decades, and for 
initiative of Pittier, they begin to give copies of the samples taken to be conserved in 
Venezuela. The foreign botanists that acted in this period and whose s studies are included 
in these observations they were: in 1901 and 1902, the naturalistic Eugène André that 
returned to Venezuela to the region of the Caura and it published in English their work TO 
naturalist in the Guianas, where it describes some plants; of 1901 at 1902, they also visit 
the Caura the botanical S. Passarge and W.M.S. Selwy; in those same years, in Margarita 
island, 6 North American botanists, John Robert Johnston, Alberto T. Blakeslee, Agustín 
Clark, Walter P. Jenkins; O.O. Miller and Cliford Wilson, check the existence of 654 
species and they publish their studies in the exterior. Of 1909 at 1910, Ernesto Ule, German 
botanical notable, followed the same itinerary of Schomburgk, it explored Guayana, the 
Roraima and the Caroní and it published his studies in charge of the Botanical Museum of 
Berlin; in 1911, the North Americans, F.E. Bond, T.S. Gillin and S. Brown, were in the 
delta of the Orinoco, but anything is not known about their observations; in 1917 the forest 
specialists come H.H. Toiler and Miles Haman, they studied the region of the coast and 
they gathered especímenes of trees, classified then by S.F. Blake, being several new 
species; in 1918, H.N. Whitford who studied the trees of economic importance; finally, of 
1920 at 1921, L.H were. Bailey and their daughter gathering in Caracas and Ciudad 
Bolívar. In 1928, the work of Kunth, Initiae Flora Venezuelensis, was published where it 
points out 7.000 Venezuelan especímenes. En1932, Carlos Chardon and Rafael Toro come 
(of Puerto Rico) to study mushrooms. Hired by the Ministry of Agriculture and it Raises 
(MAC) the English botanist Llewelyn Willliams comes to Venezuela who in 1938, he 
carries out explorations and gatherings in the National Park. In 1943, she/he comes for the 
first time, Julián Steyermark who gathered 8.500 varieties of plants during their 2 year-old 
permanency (you resided in the country in 1960). In 1943, E.P. Killip collected in the 
Federal District, Miranda and National Park of Big Ranch (Edo.Aragua), 848 botanical 
especímenes whose copy was deposited in the National Herbarium; in 1948, the 
Argentinean A. Burkart, carried out studies and it gathered leguminous. 
Foreign botanists in the second half of the XX century: During this period many scientists 
come whose work is characterized because it exists collaboration then among them, their 
institutions and the Venezuelans. Many explorations are carried out in collaboration and of 
the picked up especímenes they are copies in the National Herbarium; the publications 
made by the visitors are given to know in the country, being obtained this way mutual 
benefit. Of 1950 at 1971 42 outstanding specialists came: in 1950, W.S. Lijin (Russian) and 
Of Leuse, professors of Vegetable Physiology; R.A also came. Pursell and Ch.L. Curry; in 
1952, Basset Maguire, director of the botanical garden of New York and one of the most 
important contemporary botanical scanners; in 1955, J.S. Wurdack and J. Steyermark; in 
1960, A. and Sven Nilsson; in 1946, C. Allen, studied those «lauráceas» and M. Lamb was 
devoted to those «algae»; of 1964 to 1965 F. Breteler gathered from 3.000 to 4.000 
especímenes; in 1965, Bruijn, gathered in the basin of Maracaibo; also in 1965, R. Tshudy, 
carried out in Ranch Big studies of Palinología; that same year M. Fulford she/he studied 
those «hepatic» and R. Dressler, studied the orchids and the insects that these attract; in 
1968, G. Dewolf and Leandro Aristiguieta they collected ficus and ornamental plants. In 
1967, G. Bunting investigated those «aráceas». In 1970, H. Moore; in 1971, R. Long and 
Knut Norstog, they collected «acantáceas». Besides them the following ones came to the 
country botanical whose precise dates of demurrage don't know each other: E.W.G. Denis, 
studies mushrooms; M. Díaz PiFerrer, investigated algae; S. Yacubson, algae of sweet 
water; P. Veillon and H. Lambrech, forest studies; León Croizat-Challey, published 
important works on geobotánica and «cactáceas»; Santiago López-Palacios who has 
published several works, the most recent in 1985, Aspects etnobotánicos; M. Torres who 
published «Some woody plants of Cumaná». They have also carried out a great 
contribution, G.C.K. Dunsterville and Leslie A. Garay, with notables works on 
orquideología; A. Braun, current director of the botanical garden, it has published on 
tropical palms; Volkmar Vareschi in turn, is author of several works it has more than 
enough ecology in collaboration with Tobías Lasser. Esteban Tillett, specialist in 
«pasifloráceas», she/he has carried out and published several investigations in the Ability of 
Pharmacy of the Central University of Venezuela and it is managing of the herbarium 
«Ovalles». Therefore, the total of foreign botanists that you/they came to the country 
between 1900 and 1971, according to these data, was of 64 and the carried out botanical 
explorations, 36. Most of they returned to their origin countries, but a small group you 
residenció in Venezuela and for it, they are included among the Venezuelan botanists: 
Henri Pittier, J. Steyermark, L. Croizat-Challey, G.C.K. Dunsterville, Stephan Tillett, A. 
Braun and others. 

Venezuelan botanists: In the first half of this century, the botany takes increment in the 
country. For then, their study began in the first year of high school like a matter of the 
biology; in the universities, until the year of 1937, only in the abilities of medicine of this 
universities, in the classes of Pharmacology and Therapy, she/he became trained the use of 
the medicinal plants, very used then. For this reason it is that, the main application that was 
given in Venezuela to the botany, was in the field of the medicine and the pharmacy and it 
is not of missing that was the doctors and the pharmacists those that more they were in 
charge of of the study of this science. The century xx begins with the ordinance, in 1900, of 
the construction in Caracas of a Museum of Natural History that is inaugurated in 1917 and 
the law, creating the Academy of Physical Sciences, Mathematics and Natural in 1933. 

I develop of the botany: Their development is complex for the fact that, in the first decades 
of the century, they didn't have botanists professional Venezuelans, since the only ones that 
studied it were the doctors and the pharmacists. This way, between 1900 and 1910, 5 
doctors (G. Marcano, E. Toro, J.B. Ascanio Rodríguez, T. Aguerrevere Pacanins and J.H. 
Rodríguez L.), they published works on the flora of Venezuela and an outstanding pupil of 
Ernst, engineer Alfredo Jahn, published The Venezuelan palms. In 1918, 3 professionals 
carried out botanical explorations: Alfredo Jahn, in Guayana and you Walk them; the 
doctors, Enrique will Knit, in Perijá and Eugenio P. of Bellard, in you Walk them. The 
pharmaceutical F. Beaujon, wrote on «The aloes of Choir» and «Flora of Falcon». A fact of 
great transcendency for its development in the country, was the arrival, in 1913, of Henri 
Pittier who comes in a mission related with the agriculture; in 1918, she/he returns to 
Venezuela to visit an experimental station of Official Agriculture and in 1919, you 
residenció definitively in the country, carrying out a remarkable work; it was the 
continuator of the work of Ernst. One of their first studies, «The vegetable formations of 
Venezuela with review of the natural and agricultural products», it was made with 
ecological approach. In 1921, it achieves that the creation of the Commercial Museum is 
decreed, to exhibit agricultural and other products; in 1922, she/he prepared to prepare the 
local where it was installed, to which annexed him a taxonomía library and it began the 
National Herbarium. Also that year, Lisandro Alvarado published its work Glossary of 
indigenous voices, where it describes numerous autochthonous plants. In 1926, J. Saer 
D'Heguert, in Barquisimeto, writes on those «Monoclamídeas and polipétalas of the state 
Lara». In this same year, Pittier publishes its important work Manual of the usual plants of 
Venezuela, where it points out that they are known around 6.800 species, «...pero that many 
should exist more, because the country has been explored in very small part and very 
superficially...»; it contributes carrying out several botanical expeditions. In 1925, 
Venezuelan Flora publishes. You plant medicinal and it deposits 5.000 especímenes in the 
National Herbarium of United States, in Washington and a copy in the National Herbarium. 
His son, Emilio H. Pittier gathered, in 1952, more than 200 plants in the Federal District. A 
fundamental contribution of Pittier was founding a School of Botany where personalities 
like Francisco Tamayo were formed, Tobías Lasser, Zoraida Luces of Febres and other who 
were the first professional botanists from Venezuela. In 1928, R. Vetancourt Ravard, 
publishes its high school thesis in philosophy it has more than enough Classification of the 
plants of the gender Espadicifloras. Of 1927 at 1930, 11 botanists foreign recoleccionaron 
plants in diverse places of the country, as well as the Christian siblings from Caracas and 
Barquisimeto; all they, to proposition of Pittier, deposited in the National Herbarium the 
copies of the gathered especímenes; from then on she/he settled down this practice 
definitively as norm. The publication is among the most outstanding facts, in 1933, of the 
Regulation of the Academy of Physical Sciences, Mathematics and Natural and the 
appointment of the academics. In 1935, the medical R. Briceño E. writes on The indigenous 
flora. In 1939, Pittier publishes Supplement to the usual plants of Venezuela and Julio of 
Weapons, The flora of the plain. In 1941, Francisco Tamayo carries out botanical studies in 
Paraguaná; L. Williams and Harry Corothie, they publish the work Wood of Venezuela; in 
1945, Tobías Lasser, H. Pittier, Zoraida Luces of Febres and V. Badillo, publish the 
remarkable Catalog of the Venezuelan flora, with 9.500 plants described in the country 
until then. In 1946, the brother lasallista Elías publishes The oleaginous plants in 
Venezuela. This year it happens a fundamental fact for the scientific development of the 
botany in Venezuela, with the foundation of the School of Sciences in the Central 
University of Venezuela, by initiative of Tobías Lasser and Luis M. Peñalver, it is in this 
where they carry out their studies the first university botanists in the country. 

Application of the botany to the agriculture: According to Lasser, in the first half of the 
century xx, although the importance of the botany was known and they were carried out 
important studies in this science, correlation didn't exist between her and the agricultural 
activities, that is to say that the scientific knowledge of an and the practical of the other 
one, were not related. The government was interested in developing a technical agriculture, 
like leave for the evolution that has followed his teaching in the country. In 1912, you creó 
the Federal School of Agriculture and Veterinary in Maracay, in the country property The 
Trinidad; in 1914, the company of the railroad Bolivar begins the cultivation of the sisal in 
the state Lara; for 1926, they are founded 3 Federal Schools of Agriculture. In 1928 she/he 
is founded the Agricultural and Cattle Bank with the purpose of contributing to the 
development of these important aspects. In 1930 the interest increases for them, when being 
created the Ministry of Health, Agriculture and it Raises that gives impulse to these 
dissimilar sciences. The agricultural situation is reflected in the fact that, in 1934, subsidy is 
given to the farmers of coffee and cocoa. February of 1936, 25 separate the Ministry of 
Agriculture and it Raises of that of Health, that which allows to focus with more attention 
this difficult matter. September of that year 5 are believed the Practical School of 
Agriculture (EPA), in Maracay, clerk of the MAC and in July of 1937, the Superior School 
of Agriculture and the National School are decreed of Veterinary, clerk administratively of 
the MAC, both in the Flat country property, The Valley, Caracas; for 1939 this schools they 
acquire university range, but they continue depending administratively on the MAC. In 
1946, it was made in Caracas the III Interamerican Congress of Agriculture, where many 
important works were presented. That year, the Superior School of Agriculture and the 
Ability of Agronomic Engineering are believed; in 1948, it is completely attributed to the 
Central University of Venezuela, having reached their biggest development level as 
science; at the beginning it was located in the Flat country property, but then, in 1950 their 
headquarters was transferred Maracay (Edo. Aragua), to the country property The Trinidad, 
with appropriate constructions, where it has continued until the present. This ability has a 
class of Agricultural Botany, a Botanical Institute, a Institute of Genetics and Herbarium; it 
is of pointing out that the abilities of Agronomy and Veterinary they were those that less 
students and professors had in spite of its great importance for the country. In 1946, captain 
Félix Cardona Puig, botanical scanner of the Address was designated of Opposite of 
Relaciones Interiors' Ministry, as recolector of plants for the National Herbarium; in 1947, 
the brother lasallista Jesús Hoyos publishes trees cultivated in Venezuela. For then there 
was in the Herbarium National 29.000 especímenes that you/they corresponded 
approximately to 9.000 species. An important step was the creation, in that year, of the 
Institute of Botany of the Ministry of Agriculture and it Raises, under the direction of T. 
Lasser that which allowed to relate both activities. 

The botany in the pharmacy and the medicine: During the first half of the century xx, the 
contribution of the medicine and the pharmacy to the botany were the following one: for 
1910, the medical J.H. Rodríguez published a work on «medical Matter»; in 1918, F.R. 
Páez, on «medical Flora from Venezuela»; in 1920, R. Guerra Méndez and L. Pérez 
Carreño, on «medical Flora of Carabobo» and in 1921, J.V. Astorga, about the «Flora 
Venezuelan doctor». With relationship to the pharmacy, this restarted their activities in 
1916 as Official School and in 1922, as School of Pharmacy of the Central University of 
Venezuela, being designated Francisco Vélez Salas, professor of Pharmaceutical Botany 
who governed this class up to 1936. In 1927, it began the publication of the magazine 
Pharmaceutical Venezuela, where it published many botany articles; in 1933 she/he gave to 
know their Course of Pharmaceutical Botany, in the first part J.L collaborated. Grassland C. 
In 1942 the Pharmacopeia of the United States of Venezuela is published, where the 
medicinal plants are pointed out that were used; in this Félix Lairet, Vicente Peña, 
Francisco Vélez Salas, E. Noguera Gómez and J. Pascual Sardi collaborated. In 1946, 
Vélez Salas presented to the III Interamerican Conference of Agriculture its work, 
Importance of the medicinal plants for the therapy and the economy of Venezuela, where 
she/he stands out the economic importance of them, the necessity of carrying out botanical 
studies and of creating botanical gardens where to make this studies; this last idea was also 
proposed in this Congress by Lasser. In 1948, 2 pharmacists published studies with 
applications to the botany, Héctor Scannone in its «Contribution to the study of the 
Venezuelan kenos» and Jesús María Bianco «Contribution to the study of the mucilage of 
some malvaceus chemical venezolanas»;el Humberto Valeri, with R. Narváez, their 
«Investigations on the yagrumo» and others. Fermín Vélez Boza, their Study of the flora 
nutritious autochthonous Venezuelan. 
The work carried out in the country (1951-1985), it is characterized by the notable 
development of this science and of their application to diverse activities. This was owed, on 
one hand, to the contribution of the pupils of Pittier, as well as to professionals of the 
pharmacy, medicine and chemistry, those that also continued giving their contribution as 
they had made it in previous times. Both groups contributed to the creation of centers of 
superior education where botany courses and sciences were dictated you tune; in the 
educational aspect, the School of Sciences of the Central University of Venezuela, became 
Ability in 1958; the Ability of Agronomic Engineering prepared in 1967, of a class of 
Botany, a Botanical Institute and a Herbarium. In 1950, the Botanical Institute of the MAC 
was founded, with a Botanical Garden and the National Herbarium; these elements 
constituted the base where the first biologists, botanical, engineers agricultural and forest 
university students of the country were formed; later on, they are founded these abilities in 
other universities that leave creating, they continue being carried out botanical explorations, 
studies taxonómicos and applications of this knowledge. The number of carried out works 
is very big that which hinders its enumeration. 
Current situation of the applied botany: The botany studies have had a great development in 
the last decades. In 1977, they existed in the country botany classes in the schools of 
Biology of the universities: Central of Venezuela, Simón Bolívar, Catholic Beautiful 
Andrés, Zulia, Walk Them, Guide and Táchira; in the abilities of Agronomy of the 
universities: Central, Center-western, Zulia, East and National Experimental of the Táchira. 
Studies of Forest Engineering and of Agrobiología in the one of you Walk them; of 
Agricultural Engineering in that of the Flat Ezequiel Zamora; of Agricultural Technology in 
the University Institute of Technology of the University of the Plains and in the Yaracuy. 
From 1983, a graduate degree of Tropical Agriculture exists in the University of East and 
also, in the pedagogic university institutes of Caracas, Maracay, Barquisimeto and Maturín. 
The schools of Agriculture of the Foundation exist The you Leave him in San Carlos and in 
the educational centers of INAGRO in San Carlos, The Azulita, Tunapuy and the Practical 
School of Agriculture in Turmero. The knowledge imparted in these institutions are applied 
to the agriculture at level nacional.El Ministry of Agriculture and it Raises whose Botanical 
Service was one of the first ones, (it already existed in 1937) and the Botanical Institute 
(1950), of which depended the botanical garden of Caracas and the National Herbarium, at 
the moment attributed to the National Institute of Parks of the Ministry of the Atmosphere 
and of the Renewable Natural Resources (MARNR). In these she/he is the most complete 
scientific information in the field and where they have been carried out numerous studies. 
They have become numerous publications in their magazines Botanical Record 
Venezuelica and Venezuelan, guided Flora this last one to the pure botany and the 
economic one. They have a library and of the National Herbarium where they were 
registered in 1972 a total of 100.000 especímenes and it stops 1983, a total of 200.000. The 
National Institute of Parks (INPARQUES) it is the one in charge of the maintenance of the 
national parks; she/he carries out botanical studies and it conserves the autochthonous 
species, as well as the botanical gardens; garden xerófilo of Choir, been founded by the 
botanical León Croizat-Challey and for their wife Catalina of Croizat. The botanical garden 
of Merida, specialized in medicinal plants and that of Maracaibo; in them they are carried 
out studies of the plants that there maintain. The Venezuelan Institute of Scientific 
Investigations (IVIC) in whose Center of Ecology is the laboratories of Vegetable Ecology, 
of Floors, of Productivity and Vegetable Development; also the Center of Microbiology 
and Cellular Biology with its laboratories of Virus of Plants, of Electronic Microscopy and 
of Rhizobiología, in this last, from 1977, they are carried out studies of the bacterias of the 
gender Rhizobium and its application to the leguminous ones to provide him nitrogen, by 
means of the fixation simbiótica. You creó a plant pilot for agreement with the National 
Council of Scientific and Technological Investigations and the Polar Foundation and 
national crowd was used as support of the inoculante, its production was developed, so that 
in 1982, 90 were sowed there is of leguminous inoculated and in 1984, a total of 1.600 has, 
obtaining you positive results, waiting you to increase the areas of sows inoculated to 
obtain a bigger productivity. They have the support of other centers and laboratories of the 
institution as well as with the library «Marcel Roche». They also offer graduate degree 
courses in Ecology and Microbiology. The National Council of Scientific and 
Technological Investigations (CONICIT) that contributes with the financing of projects, so 
much in the individual investigation, for the Address of Development, like in the 
investigation centers applied to the industry, for the Address of Technological 
Development; she/he also gives support to graduate degree studies. At the moment they are 
financed 1.800 projects approximately, some correspond to the agriculture and the industry. 
The National Agrarian Institute (IAN), before Institute of Immigration and Colonization, it 
has contributed to the establishment of peasants and immigrant, incorporating to the 
production new lands and instructing them in technical agricultural scientific. The National 
Fund of Agricultural Investigations (FONAIAP), among other important functions she/he 
takes charge of the production of seeds, it certifies and it guarantees their supply for the 
commercial siembras of the country in corn, cotton, sorghum, cocoa, bean, rice, 
quinchoncho, potatoes, grasses and others. The Fundación Centro of Investigations of the 
State for the Agroindustrial Experimental production (CIEPE), located in San Felipe (Edo. 
Yaracuy), it was created in 1973, clerk of the Venezuelan Corporation of Development and 
constituted in Foundation in 1976 to develop the industrialization of agricultural matters, 
she/he carries out technical investigation, having laboratories and pilot plants for the 
products, of technical attendance, and it qualifies personal that he gives solutions to solve 
the alimentary problems of the country and it allows to converge to the foreign markets. 
The National Company of Reforestation (CONARE), she/he carries out works in 
connection with the reforestation and forest industry; it maintains siembras of pine caribe in 
the state Monagas and other for the production of paper pulp. The Agreement Beautiful 
Andrés (SECAV), to which Venezuela contributes, she/he has centralized the scientific 
information on botany (FUNBOTANICA), applicable to the agriculture. The Institute of 
Pharmaceutical Investigations of the Ability of Pharmacy of the Central University of 
Venezuela, carries out studies of systematic botany, of vegetable physiology and in 
fitoquímica; she/he makes studies of the active principles of the plants and of its effects in 
the humans; she/he carries out doctoral thesis; studies of toxic plants and she/he has a 
database it has more than enough etnobotánica in Venezuela. The experimental station 
«Jaime Henao Jaramillo» (Nucleus The Laurel-UCV), it has a laboratory of cultivation of 
plants in vitro that is producing plántulas of resistant coffees to the illness roya of the 
coffee, to give them to the producers through an agreement between this and the Fund of 
the Coffee. It is the first Latin American country that produces these plants. The 
Experimental University Francisco of Miranda (UNEFM), in chorus; in their Center of 
Technological Investigations she/he comes working for some years in a project to use the 
algae agarófilas that San Román exists in end (peninsula of Paraguaná) which was studied 
by Foldats and financed by CONICIT, a plant pilot has settled down for the agar obtaining 
that is used in the industry of foods and laboratories. The Fundación Servicio for the 
Farmer (FUSAGRI), created in 1952 as Servicio Shell for the Farmer, she/he acquired, in 
1972 their current status; she/he carries out investigations in agricultural technology to 
improve the productivity in the cultivations; it transmits these knowledge to the farmers by 
means of training courses, as much to these as to technical means and university students; it 
collaborates with the practical schools of agriculture, agronomy abilities and recently 
graduate agricultural engineers. It dictates graduate degree courses and she/he carries out 
agricultural publications. She/he has worked in fruit-bearing, leguminous, vegetables and at 
the moment in amaranths. She/he has an experimental station in Cagua and they have 
viveros. The Institute of Agricultural Training (INAGRO), been founded in 1979, she/he 
has as end to offer the formation of the farmers, for that which has 6 educational centers 
where they dictate courses to students; also, by means of instructors, it guides the farmers 
of the whole country to improve the cultivation techniques. The Venezuelan Society for the 
Advance of the Science (ASOVAC), she/he carries out studies of pure and applied botany, 
which are presented in their annual conventions and published in their magazine 
Venezuelan Scientific Record. The National Program of Underemployed Botanical 
Resources, sponsored by the ASOVAC, it is formed by professors of the UCV and of other 
institutions, she/he carries out studies in the underemployed plants to incorporate them to 
the production of natural resources; it has gathered lists of this plants and it makes meetings 
to stimulate their use. The Venezuelan Society of Natural Sciences (SVCN), been founded 
in 1931, she/he carries out botanical studies, those that it publishes in their magazine; it has 
the biological station of the plains, in Prison (Edo. Guárico), created in 1960, studies have 
been made it has more than enough yucca and sunflower, and where the botanist, Francisco 
Tamayo, his director for several years, made studies of the plant forrajera that baptized with 
the name of «Estabiol». It also has the Center of Investigations and Environmental 
Education «Ricardo Montilla», in White Well, Acarigua, directed by Leandro Aristiguieta. 
The Foundation The you Leave him Natural Sciences it has an agricultural station in San 
Carlos (Edo. Cojedes), where they carry out studies of gramineous and you plant forrajeras; 
she/he has laboratory of floors and a regional herbarium of the plain, library and it 
publishes their magazine Memory. The Society of Natural Sciences The you Leave him, 
she/he studies fruit-bearing and other plants, she/he has a herbarium with more than 16.000 
especímenes of 160 families and it publishes the magazine Nature. La Fundación Polar, 
creada en 1977, ha contribuido al desarrollo de investigaciones y estudios en diversos 
campos de las ciencias, en especial relacionados con la agricultura y la agroindustria; 
también ha realizado y contribuido a numerosos seminarios y cursos en estos temas, en 
colaboración con FUSAGRI, ha hecho cultivos de soya. The Fundación CAVENDES 
carries out seminars, publications and in collaboration with FUSAGRI, they made the I 
«Seminar for the Promotion, Use and Consumption of the Bean». The Fund of Agricultural 
Credit, contributes to the foundation of grasses and plantations. Protinal, of the Empresas 
Mendoza, she/he has stood out in the cultivation of the sorghum. Empalsa, dedicated to the 
production of dried up vegetables, it has begun with success the cultivation of the cúrcuma 
for their coloring employee's obtaining in the industry of foods. The Sociedad Amigos of 
the tree (SADARBOL) and the Venezuelan Society of Orquideología, they carry out 
meetings and they publish studies related with ornamental plants. The company The Tower 
of the Gold, she/he has carried out with success the cultivation of the sunflower in the states 
Monagas and Anzoátegui, financing this cultivation for the obtaining of oil. The Center of 
Development Tropical Vitícola, carries out investigations, docencia and technical 
attendance to the farmers interested in the cultivation of the grape that is mainly another of 
the agricultural sectors that has experienced great development, in the state Zulia where it is 
located; it is integrated by CORPOZULIA, Association of Viticultores of the Zulia and 
FUSAGRI; they take place, besides the grapes, its juice and wines. Between 1971 and 
1983, they were carried out 7 Venezuelan Congresses of Botany, made in different cities of 
the country, in the last one 227 works were presented; for that year they had 13 herbaria 
and the publications periodic Venezuelans, in which botany works or areas appear you 
tune, they were of 43 for 1985. 
Among the studies that have not been carried out still, but that they are object of scientific 
concern they are, the establishment of a Center of Germoplasma, so much of selected seeds 
and conserved under conditions of viability, which would be sowed and they would harvest 
to conserve the pure lines, as well as the plants, especially autochthonous, for their 
conservation and study; to try to maintain a constant communication between the scientists 
and investigators and the farmers, in order to exchange information and to obtain a bigger 
agricultural yield and the publication of a history of the development of the studies of the 
botany, pure and applied, in the country 


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